水力压裂微地震震源机制解

以可视化方法描述水力压裂微地震震源机制, 主要有3种方法,即:

1. 沙滩球 Beach Ball

震源机制解以地震矩张量(Seismic Moment Tensor)表示。以“沙滩球”方式刻画震源矩张量,是天然地震震源机制研究的传统方法。

沙滩球并不显示震级或振幅大小,只是描述位移方向。

沙滩球
沙滩球

2. T-k图 Hudson Plot

T-k图也称Hudson图(Hudson et al., 1989),比滩滩球更难懂一些。

这种菱形图以不同的象限描绘不同的震源机制:双力偶( double couple, DC)或纯剪切机制位于图的正中间;各向同性或纯开启或闭合机制分别在图的最上方或最下方;张性开启或闭合破裂分别在左上角和右下角(Urbancic and Jeziorski, 2015)。

使用T-k图时,一般将事件点根据时间着色并动态显示事件随时间出现的过程。

K-t图 (Urbancic and Jeziorski, 2015)
K-t图 (2015)

3. 三角图 Ternary Plot

Ternary图是简化的Hudson图,可清晰地展示全矩张量的三个分量(DC, CLVD, VOL)的占比即出现时间 。

三角图(MicroSeismic Inc., 2016)
三角图(MicroSeismic Inc., 2016)

参考文献 References

Egill Árni Guðnason . Analysis of seismic activity on the western part of the Reykjanes Peninsula, SW Iceland, December 2008 – May 2009

Hudson, J. A., Pearce, R. G., & Rogers, R. M. (1989). Source type plot for inversion of the moment tensor. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 94(B1), 765-774.

Ted Urbancic and Katie Jeziorski. Microseismic Monitoring Applications in Heavy Oil Reservoirs. CSEG RECORDER, 2015, 40(1): 38-42.

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